You might try identifying it through this page and links: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/alphabets.htm,
or use the TextCat Language Guesser here:
(note that many links are broken on this page, but the guesser was working as of 27 August 2012).
Another fascinating resource is the Library of Congress ALA-LC Romanization Tables, which give guidance as to how to transliterate other orthographies (writing systems) into Roman type.
If you have been told that the document originates in Eastern Europe, then feel free to send me an excerpt (by fax or as a gif, jpeg, or pdf by e-mail — see the about page for contact info) and tell me you’d like to know what language it is. If I can, I will identify the language and subject for you.* If I cannot identify the language, I will let you know that as well.
*Free of charge, but without obligation or guarantee.